To know what happened today in history, famous events occurred, famous birthdays, death days, legend quotes, and historical news on July 27.
Events on July 27
Famous Birthdays on July 27
Quotes from Legend
Democracy passes into despotism.
- Plato, Greek philosopher. Today military leaders in Greece handed power to the civilian government, 1974.
Historical News on July 27
Spinoza challenges Scripture
1656 The Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam have decided to excommunicate 24-year old student Benedict Spinoza for failing to modify his unorthodox interpretations of Scripture.
The civil authorities have also taken action by banishing him from Amsterdam for a short period.
Neither bribes nor threats have persuaded Spinoza to change his contention that there is nothing in the Bible to support some orthodox views – for example, that God has no body, that angels exist or that the soul is immortal.
The budding philosopher is said to be dismayed by the reaction to his ponderings.
The Jewish fathers are in a difficult position, however, and fearful that Spinoza’s “heresies” may reflect badly on the vulnerable Jewish community, whose members still have to win the right of citizenship in Holland.
Robespierre Slips In His Own Bloodbath
1794 In a historic vote today the Convention in Paris decided to arrest the chief architect of the “Reign of Terror”, Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, and his supporters.
They have become increasingly hostile to the 36-year-old lawyer and his aims, and yesterday were alarmed by his demand for a carte blanche regarding future use of the guillotine.
Robespierre spoke in such menacing terms that few present could have doubted that their own necks might yet feel the kiss of that steely Madame.
When Robespierre attempted to address the normally compliant Convention he was drowned out with cries of “Down with the tyrant”.
Support from the troops of the Commune, Robespierre’s principal power base, was not forthcoming, and he was lost.
Robespierre is now in custody awaiting execution.
Olympic athlete fails drugs test
1988 A life ban has been imposed by the British Amateur Athletic Board on Olympic pole vaulter Jeff Gutteridge.
Two tests, one administered in Lanzarote in April and the other at a laboratory in London, revealed the clear presence of steroids.
Gutteridge, 32, is the first British athlete to be banned for dope-taking.
He denies the charge and intends to appeal on the grounds that the testing procedure was not properly followed.
Under the strict rules introduced by the BAAB to combat drug use, athletes who test positive have no right of appeal for reinstatement.
Britain is the only country in the world to subject its athletes to spot checks.
Shah of Iran dies in Cairo
1980 The deposed Shah of Iran died in Cairo’s Maadi Military Hospital today at the age of 60.
The cause of death was internal bleeding and heart failure as a result of infection and lymphatic cancer.
On his deathbed, the Shah had requested to be buried ultimately in Tehran, named his eldest son, Prince Reza, as the rightful heir to the Peacock Throne, and prayed for the overthrow of Ayatollah Khomeini.
The Shah lived in the Mexican mountain resort of Cuernavaca after leaving Iran in January 1979 but in recent months had been forced to seek medical treatment elsewhere for his deteriorating condition.
Shortly before he died the Shah said that he was “fed up with living artificially”.
His wish for a very simple funeral is unlikely to be realized.
President Sadat is expected to have his old ally buried with full military honors.
1953 The Korean War formally ended today with the signing of a peace pact at Panmunjom.
Lieutenant General William H. Harrison signed for the UN forces and General Nam Il for the Chinese people’s volunteers and North Korean forces.
The armistice negotiations have taken just over two years, in which time the two sides have met 575 times.
The three-year conflict has cost an estimated five million lives.