To know what happened today in history, famous events occurred, famous birthdays, death days, legend quotes, and historical news on September 23.
Events on September 23
Famous Birthdays on September 23
Quotes from Legendary
At bottom God is nothing more than an exalted father.
- Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, who died today, 1939.
Historical News on September 23
British Caught Out By Spycatcher
1987 Spycatcher, the memoirs of former British intelligence officer Peter Wright, will be published in Australia in spite of top-level British efforts to have the book suppressed.
M15 man Wright retired to Australia 10 years ago.
Last year a High Court judge banned British newspapers from publishing extracts from the book and the British government brought a court case against Wright in Australia – unsuccessfully.
Britain appealed, and lost the appeal today.
London’s Sunday Times is in court for contempt after publishing extracts from the book, many copies of which have been smuggled into Britain, and which is openly on sale in the US.
Wright insists there is nothing new in his book.
Third World Pays To Stay In Debt
1991 The World Bank took more money from Third World countries than it gave them last year, according to the bank’s annual report, released today.
Interest and capital repayments were $1.56 billion more than the bank paid in new loans and assistance.
The African countries were net recipients, but the Caribbean and Latin America paid out $2 billion more than they received.
The figures have brought bitter criticism from the poorer countries, which are anxious not to lose out as the bank shifts its focus to the needs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
Silent U-Boats Are New Lethal Weapon
1914 The German submarine U-9 has sunk three British cruisers off the Dutch coast, with 1500 lives lost.
The war at sea started in earnest on August 28, when a British fleet raided the Heligoland Bight and sank four German ships.
Today’s battle off Holland shows the new shape of sea warfare: powerful warships were helpless against the silent attack of one small submarine.
The German fleet is outnumbered and blockaded in the North Sea, but the U-boats are not so easily stopped.
German mines have claimed several British ships.
Astronomers Row Over New Planet
1846 Two German astronomers discovered another planet, the eighth in distance from the Sun, about a billion miles beyond Uranus.
Johann Galle and Heinrich d’Arrest of the Berlin Observatory were told just where to look by the young French astronomer Urbain Le Verrier.
He had concluded that the irregular orbit of Uranus could only be explained by the gravitational pull of another planet, and calculated its position to within one degree.
The announcement has brought a protest from 24-year-old English astronomer John Adams, who claims he made the same prediction nine months ago, and the credit should be his.
British scientists scoffed at his findings at the time.
Further controversy surrounds a name for the new planet.
Le Verrier wants to call it “Leverrier”, but others favour Neptune.
Who Collects a Debt?
1912 King of comedy Mack Sennet’s new slapstick short Cohen Collects a Debt was released today and was an instant success.
The film features policemen known as the Keystone Cops, whose antics had the audience in stitches.
Un Enforces A Ceasefire
1979 The second war of Kashmir ended today after the passing of a resolution in the UN Security Council that called for an unconditional ceasefire between the warring nations, India and Pakistan.
As a natural culmination of the increasingly frequent and violent skirmishes initiated by Pakistani forces along the international border, the war involved infantry and armoured units, backed by substantial air and naval operations.
India’s strategic position was decidedly superior at the time the ceasefire was signed.
It was signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
As a result of the war, Pakistani insurgency in Kashmir has been halted, and the war is already being hailed as a politico strategic victory for India.
In the long run, the refusal of the US and UK to supply India with weaponry even as Pakistan employed US-made arms is sure to have substantial geopolitical repercussions.